Hackle's blog
between the abstractions we want and the abstractions we get.

PATCH-friendly types: null confusion, undefined envy and maybe maybe

So you know what null is, but have you heard about explicit null and implicit null?

We are told null represents the "lack of value"; but it's clearly not always true: in many languages, null (or nil, Nothing) is a value that can be assigned to variables, and passed around, and is definitely first-class.

Right! So it's both a value and "lack of value", isn't that the most confusing thing ever?

null: never set, or explicitly set?

Consider the below method in C#,

public class Person
    public string Nickname;

// in some other class
string Update(Person person) 
    if (person.Nickname == null) 
        // what to do?

And let me ask you this: when person.Nickname is null, how can we know if it's,

  1. an implicit null that is never given a value, as with new Person(), or
  2. an explicit null as with new Person(Nickname = null)?

The answer is, by looking at the value alone, there is no way to tell!

What's the fuss, you say. If this never bothers you, great, count your blessings; but if it does, then you know it can actually be a pretty big deal.


One famous use case for differentiating explicit and implicit null, is JSON merge PATCH.

Let's say this Person record is currently saved in the data store.

{ "id": 1, "name": "Hackle", "nickname": "Hacks" }

And a client wants to reset the nickname, so it sends a PATCH request.

PATCH /person/1 
{ "nickname": null }

Notice the explicit null, it clearly indicates nickname should be set to null. A good server-side implementation should update the record so it looks like,

{ "id": 1, "name": "Hackle", "nickname": null } // or remove the nickname field completely

This is a non-issue for JavaScript. You would guess, is it because it's untyped or dynamically typed? Not just! In this case, it's actually because JavaScript is very well-typed, and almost statically.

JavaScript differentiates null and no value is given, a.k.a. undefined. So imagine the server-side code written in Node,

if (person.nickname === undefined) {
  // do nothing!

A stroke of genius indeed! Now we know undefined is nothing to sneeze at.

Other languages may not be so lucky. Without undefined or its equivalent, we are left with the annoying confusion between implicit and explicit null.

Lossy serializers

Suffice to say, JSON merge PATCH is a pain to implement in a old-school statically typed language like C#. Why? Let's look at the example below,

using System;
using System.Text.Json;

record Person
  public string Name;
  public string Nickname;

class Program {
  public static void Main (string[] args) {
    var person1 = JsonSerializer.Deserialize<Person>("{\"name\":\"Hacks\"}");
    var person2 = JsonSerializer.Deserialize<Person>("{\"name\":\"Hacks\",\"nickname\":null}");

    Console.WriteLine (person1 == person2);
    // outputs: True

For all its static typing, C# cannot tell implicit null from explicit null. Is nickname set to null in the JSON request body, or not set at all? Don't know!

Some very useful information is lost. As far as JSON deserialization is concerned, the type system is inadequate here for lack of a undefined equivalent.

Way out: a step back

The serializer should not take the blame here. In fact, most serializers support deserializing into a dynamic hashmap. After all, a JSON object is nothing more than a map itself.

See how this is done pretty easily in C# with the mysterious dynamic keyword!

var person1 = JsonSerializer.Deserialize<dynamic>("{\"name\":\"Hacks\"}");
var person2 = JsonSerializer.Deserialize<dynamic>("{\"name\":\"Hacks\",\"nickname\":null}");

// person1 is a System.Text.Json.JsonElement


You see, the serializer is totally capable of differentiating between undefined and null. Why don't we use dynamic instead? What's the problem?!

The problem is we are addicted to convenience! Deserialising a JSON object to a "strongly-typed" model is golden standard, even at the cost of information loss. Nobody wants to break the standards, and downgrade to the level of manipulating JSON objects directly, what are we, savages?

So this is the core of the problem: for the sake of convenience in the disguise of "correctness" (or "strong" typing), we accept information loss, which actually undermines correctness. This is the real dead end!

Types again

Boy did the JSON merge Patch problem make engineers scramble. But if there is one thing engineers do well, is to work around problems by PATCHing (pun intended) over them.

It's too late to introduce undefined to existing type systems, so the Java peeps are quick to copy undefined from JavaScript, with JsonNullable. ASP.NET users love their model binding so a library must be made to suit.

Wait, Haskell has undefined, although, it's not supposed to be touched.

ghci> undefined
*** Exception: Prelude.undefined
CallStack (from HasCallStack):
  error, called at libraries/base/GHC/Err.hs:74:14 in base:GHC.Err
  undefined, called at <interactive>:2:1 in interactive:Ghci1
ghci> undefined == undefined
*** Exception: Prelude.undefined
CallStack (from HasCallStack):
  error, called at libraries/base/GHC/Err.hs:74:14 in base:GHC.Err
  undefined, called at <interactive>:3:1 in interactive:Ghci1

Give its prestige as a language and community, surely Haskell peeps have handled this with flying colours? Not necessarily. Take this example with Aeson,

import Data.Aeson
import Data.Text
import GHC.Generics

data Person = Person { 
  name :: Text, 
  nickname :: Maybe Text 
} deriving (Generic, Show)
instance FromJSON Person

person = decode "{\"name\":\"Hacks\"}" :: Maybe Person

main :: IO ()
main = do
  putStrLn $ show person

-- prints
Just (Person {name = "Hacks", nickname = Nothing})

Instead of implicit null we have implicit Nothing, not much different than C#. It looks like the core of the problem is not with languages but with conventions, and conventions go deep.

Maybe Maybe?

So we really love "strong-typing" so much, and never want to regress into using JSON objects directly, are we stuck with JavaScript for JSON merge PATCH? What are the alternatives?

Only if we could change the conventions just a little, there may be a way out. For example, utilising Haskell's tagged unions, we could introduce a new type such as data MaybeUndefined a as below. Missing fields deserialise into Undefined, otherwise their intended type a, which can be nullable itself. For example,

data MaybeUndefined a = Undefined | Defined a

data Person = Person { 
  name :: Text, 
  nickname :: MaybeUndefined (Maybe Text)

Now we have deterministic interpretation,

  1. Undefined: the nickname field is missing, i.z. no value is given
  2. Defined Nothing: a null value is set explicitly
  3. Defined (Just "Hacks"): a value other than null is given

(NOTE: I have not managed to implement this with Aeson)

This technique would slot in pretty naturally for tagged unions, but not so well for untagged unions which collapse - for example, in TypeScript, Optional<T> is the same as OptionalOptional<T>, proof below,

type Optional<T> = T | undefined;
type OptionalOptional<T> = Optional<T> | undefined;

type StrictEq<T, U> = 
    [T] extends [U] 
    ? [U] extends [T] 
        ? true : false 
    : false;

// Type 'false' is not assignable to type 'true'.ts(2322)
const areEqual: StrictEq<Optional<string>, OptionalOptional<string>> = false;

This is hardly the end of the world but it does mean more heavy-handed wiring is needed to introduce the type level equivalent of undefined.

Contract Versioning

Worth noting this issue does not stop at PATCH.

Let's say for our wildly popular endpoint, nickname is a new field added to the existing Person contract. And let's assume people are wary of versioning hell so that's not an option.

For the various client sides, this should be completely backward compatible, right? Not really.

When a PATCH request is received, we are faced with even more interpretations when nickname is null after deserialisation.

  1. user wants to keep nickname as is, or
  2. user wants to reset nickname to null, or
  3. the client side is yet to be aware of nickname, so nickname will be missing, or
  4. the client side is aware of nickname, and is setting null values consciously

Too much guessing required!

In closing

Who would have thought JSON merge PATCH would bring so much envy for undefined and JavaScript?

Isn't interesting, and maybe a bit embarrassing to admit how much trouble null is still causing us? Even the more modern, powerful languages are no exception, because the conventions are pervasive and run deep.

But these languages do have the edge of extra expressive power, which helps to make the solution less wacky and more elegant. All we need to fight are the conventions - but would we be able to?