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between the abstractions we want and the abstractions we get.

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Nov 15-16 TypeScript Power Users

Nov 17-18 Simple by Design: Declutter Your Architecture, Code and Test

Nov 15-16 TypeScript Power Users

Nov 17-18 Simple by Design: Declutter Your Architecture, Code and Test

If you are looking for a good example of taking something simple and turning it into something indistinguishable from magic, look no further, I have just the thing: the `Const`

type.

The definition of `Const`

is a simple one, as from `Data.Functor.Const`

:

```
newtype Const a b = Const { getConst :: a }
```

Note the second type parameter `b`

is not used in the constructor. For example, `Const "a"`

, which is of type `Const [Char] b`

.

One interesting effect of this, is that `b`

can be interpreted as any type, we can try this out with `GHCi`

.

```
Data.Functor.Const> :t (Const "a" :: Const [Char] Int)
(Const "a" :: Const [Char] Int) :: Const [Char] Int
Data.Functor.Const> :t (Const "a" :: Const [Char] Bool)
(Const "a" :: Const [Char] Bool) :: Const [Char] Bool
```

Due to such strangeness as with the ignored `b`

, `Const`

is called a `phantom type`

.

With the above definition, its `Functor`

instance is pretty routine but equally interesting.

```
instance Functor (Const m) where
fmap _ (Const v) = Const v
```

Remember `fmap :: (a -> b) -> (F a) -> (F b)`

, the above implementation thus specializes to type `fmap :: (a -> b) -> (Const x a) -> (Const x b)`

, however, both `a`

and `b`

are discarded, so `(a -> b)`

has nothing to act on, and is thus also discarded and replaced with `_`

.

```
Data.Functor.Const> (+1) <$> Const "a"
Const "a"
Data.Functor.Const> length <$> Const "a"
Const "a"
```

We can throw any function at it, in vain, a `Const`

value is resistant to `fmap`

.

The Applicative instance is even more interesting. (Note for simplicity this is different than the definition in Prelude)

```
instance Monoid m => Applicative (Const m) where
pure _ = Const mempty
Const x <*> Const y = Const (x `mappend` y)
```

`m`

is required to be a `Monoid`

. Why? Well, remember the instance specializes to

```
<*> :: Const x (a -> b) -> Const x (a) -> Const x b
```

As with the `Functor`

instance, `(a -> b)`

, `a`

and `b`

are ignored all together. But different than the `Functor`

instance, we now have two values `x`

and `y`

to dispose of. What do we do with them? We can't just throw them away, or just keep one of them (we CAN but it'll be like *cheating*), One easy solution is just to somehow combine them, and what better way to express that than with `Monoid`

?

```
Data.Functor.Const> Const "a" <*> Const "b"
Const "ab"
-- but not this as Char is not a monoid
Data.Functor.Const> :t Const 'a' <*> Const 'b'
<interactive>:1:1: error:
_ No instance for (Monoid Char) arising from a use of '<*>'
_ In the expression: Const 'a' <*> Const 'b'
```

Hence the `Monoid`

constraint. Makes sense.

Now the introduction is over, let's look at an intriguing use of `Const`

, with the `lens`

library as described here. Say we have a `Person`

type.

```
data Person = Person { name :: String } deriving (Show, Eq)
```

And to recap the famous `Lens`

definition, double primed to avoid conflict,

```
type Lens'' s t a b = forall f. Functor f => (a -> f b) -> s -> f t
```

We can define a lens `lname`

to focus on `name`

of `Person`

. Note `fname`

is a function that act on the `name`

field.

```
lname :: Lens'' Person Person String String
lname fname p = (\n -> p { name = n }) <$> fname (name p)
```

This innocuous `lname`

updates a `Person`

record, but wrapped in a `Functor`

- as a matter of fact, **any** Functor. As a trivial example, we pass in `Identity.reverse`

to reverse the name.

```
> runIdentity $ lname (Identity . reverse) $ Person "Hackle"
Person {name = "elkcaH"}
```

Pretty straightforward, right? What is less so, is when we pass in `Const`

instead,

```
> getConst $ lname Const $ Person "Hackle"
"Hackle"
```

We get the name back, and the name only! What happened to the `Person`

? Shouldn't it have been modified and returned? Well, it's been thrown away, thanks to `Cosnt`

. Let's recap the implementation of `lname`

,

```
lname fname p = (\n -> p { name = n }) <$> fname (name p)
```

and put `Const`

in place of `fname`

, with a bit of partial application, we get,

```
lname p = (\n -> p { name = n }) <$> Const (name p)
```

Now remember the implementation of `fmap`

for `Const`

? It will keep the `name`

value through `fmap`

as it's resistant to it.

Clever right? For one thing, it certainly fits the grand scheme of `lens`

pretty well.

`Identity`

and `Const`

as oneIt's well known that for `lens`

, `Identity`

is used for setting / overriding of values, and `Const`

for viewing values (as shown above). However, a pretty well hidden secret is, they can be seen as two sides of the same coin. Which coin, you ask? Just the good old tuple, I say.

Taking a tuple `(a, b)`

, `Const`

can be seen as only needing `a`

, as in `(a, undefined)`

; `Identity`

, on the other hand, only uses `b`

, so it's isomorphic to `(undefined, b)`

.

To see how this works let's make a couple of helper functions,

```
mkIdentity a = (undefined, a)
mkConst a = (a, undefined)
```

Then we can use them in place of `Identity`

and `Const`

as follows:

```
> snd $ lname mkIdentity $ Person "Hackle"
Person {name = "Hackle"}
>
> fst $ lname mkConst $ Person "Hackle"
"Hackle"
```

You would have noticed that `(a, b)`

is both a `Functor`

and an `Applicative`

- that's why we get no complaints from `GHCi`

.

Be warned though, when trying them out in `GHCi`

, it won't work without applying `snd`

and `fst`

, as `undefined`

will kick in. Thanks to laziness, if we avoid touching `undefined`

in the tuple, there would be no exception.

The acute reader would have been screaming already - why use `undefined`

at all? Just duplicate the value for the tuple as `(a, a)`

! And we don't have to worry about `GHCi`

blowing up. Indeed that works.

```
> dup = \a -> (a, a)
> lname (dup . reverse) $ Person "Hackle"
("elkcaH",Person {name = "elkcaH"})
> fst $ lname (dup . reverse) $ Person "Hackle"
"elkcaH"
> snd $ lname (dup . reverse) $ Person "Hackle"
Person {name = "elkcaH"}
```

This of course is no coincidence. In essence `Identity`

, `Const`

and `(a, b)`

are all product types and therefore have much in common. In practice we'd still be using `Const`

and `Identity`

as they are safer and more expressive, but if you find them confusing, then the above understanding may be helpful.

As with most things in Haskell, there is no real magic with `Const`

, it's all about solid reasoning around simple, solid ideas. However, the use of such basic ideas, when combined with one another, can appear quite extraordinary.

To spot and use such trickery, we'll also need to build an intuition around it - which requires much practice; or at times, shortcuts may come in handy, such as tuple for `Identity`

and `Const`

.